- 1 What is urinary tract infection?
- 2 Urinary tract infection in men and women
- 3 How do you get a urinary tract infection?
- 4 Common signs of urinary tract infection in men and women
- 5 UTI medicine. Best antibiotic for UTI
- 6 Recurrent UTI
- 7 UTI in toddlers. UTI meds for kids
- 8 How to cure urinary tract infection with Cipro (Ciprofloxacin)? UTI pills
- 9 What can you do for an urinary tract infection? UTI treatment antibiotics
What is urinary tract infection?
Infectious diseases are understood as pathologies that are caused by certain microorganisms, and proceed with the development of an inflammatory reaction, which can result in a complete recovery or chronization of the process when periods of relative well-being alternate with exacerbations.
What is urinary tract infections?
Often, patients and some health care workers equate urinary infections and diseases. However, such ideas do not quite accurately reflect the essence of each term.
The World Health Organization recommends that specific clinical nosologies, in which the organ of the genital or urinary system is affected, be referred to as urogenital infections. Moreover, the pathogens may be different.
And sexually transmitted diseases include a group that has an appropriate pathway, but can affect many organs, and the division of infections is determined according to the type of pathogen. Thus, we are talking about classifications for different grounds.
According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, the following diseases are understood as urinogenital infections:
- urethritis (inflammation of the urethra);
- cystitis (inflammation of the bladder);
- pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the kidneys);
- adnexitis (inflammation of the ovaries);
- salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes);
- endometritis (inflammation of the lining of the uterus);
- balanitis (inflammation of the glans penis);
- balanoposthitis (inflammation of the head and foreskin of the penis);
- prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland);
- vesiculitis (inflammation of the seminal vesicles);
- epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis).
Thus, urinary infections relate exclusively to the organs that make up these systems of the human body.
Urinary tract infection in men and women
Differences in the course of urinary infections in men and women.
Men and women have different genitals, which is clear and known to all. The structure of the urinary system (bladder, urethra) also has significant differences and different surrounding tissues.
The urethra of men is three to four times longer than the female. Due to this length of the male urethra, its inflammation (urethritis) is more difficult to treat, and this requires more time.
Dr. Andreas Gross (Germany, Hamburg): Urethritis in women is cured faster and easier. But such a length of the urethra in men is a kind of barrier, protecting against the penetration of genital infections in the overlying sections of the urinary tract, such as the bladder and kidneys.
The short and wide urethra of women does not represent a serious obstacle to the ascent of the infection, therefore, women of the weaker sex more often develop complications of primary urethritis – cystitis, pyelonephritis, adnexitis and salpingitis.
That is why men mostly suffer from urethritis and prostatitis. Cystitis, pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis are less common in men than in women, and the reason for the development of these pathologies is often structural features, diet, lifestyle, and so on.
Most often, inflammation of the glans penis or its foreskin, as well as cystitis and nonspecific urethritis, in addition to an infectious cause, can be associated with anal sex and ignoring the rules of personal hygiene. Urethritis in men is sharper and sharper than in women.
Men suffer from pain and burning throughout the urethra when trying to urinate, as well as a feeling of heaviness in the perineum. Due to the short urethra in women, the infection easily rises into the bladder and kidneys. Moreover, women are characterized by a lighter and more hidden course of the urogenital infection, compared with men. Therefore, women often have a symptom of a hidden urogenital infection – bacteriuria (the presence of bacteria in the urine in the absence of any symptoms and signs of the disease).
Usually, asymptomatic bacteriuria is not treated. The only exceptions are cases of preoperative preparation or pregnancy. Due to the latent forms of urinogenital infection, women more often than men are carriers of the disease, often unaware of their presence.
How do you get a urinary tract infection?
Ways of UTI infection.
Today, there are three main groups of paths under which infection with urogenital infections is possible:
1. Dangerous sexual contact of any type (vaginal, oral, anal) without the use of barrier contraceptives (condom).
2. The ascent of infection (penetration of microbes from the skin into the urethra or vagina, and the rise to the kidneys or ovaries) as a result of neglect of the rules of hygiene.
3. Transfer with blood and lymph from other organs in which there are various diseases of inflammatory genesis (caries, pneumonia, influenza, colitis, enteritis, sore throat, etc.).
Many pathogens have affinity for any particular organ, the inflammation of which they cause. Other microbes have affinity for several organs, so they can form inflammation either in one or in the other, or in all at once.
For example, a sore throat is often caused by group B streptococcus, which has an affinity for the tissues of the kidneys and tonsils, that is, it can cause glomerulonephritis or sore throat.
For what reasons this type of streptococcus settles in the glands or kidneys, to date it is not clear. However, by causing a sore throat, streptococcus can reach the kidneys with a blood stream, and also provoke glomerulonephritis.
Common signs of urinary tract infection in men and women
Consider the symptoms and features of the most common urinary infections.
Any urinary infection is accompanied by the development of the following symptoms:
- soreness and discomfort in the organs of the genitourinary system;
- tingling sensation;
- the presence of vaginal discharge in women, from the urethra in men and women;
- various urinary disorders (burning, itching, difficulty, increased, and so on);
- the appearance of unusual structures on the external genital organs (plaques, film, vesicles, papillomas, warts).
In the case of a specific infection, the following signs join:
1. Purulent discharge of the urethra or vagina.
2. Frequent urination in gonorrhea or trichomoniasis.
3. An ulcer with dense edges and enlarged lymph nodes in syphilis.
If the infection is non-specific, the symptoms may be more blurred, less noticeable. Viral infection leads to the appearance of some unusual structures on the surface of the external genital organs – vesicles, ulcers, condylomas, and so on.
UTI medicine. Best antibiotic for UTI
Therapy for urinary infections has several aspects:
1. It is necessary to use etiotropic therapy (drugs that kill the microbe pathogen).
2. If possible, use immunostimulating drugs.
3. It is rational to combine and take a number of drugs (for example, painkillers), which reduce unpleasant symptoms, significantly reducing the quality of life.
The choice of a specific etiotropic drug (antibiotic, sulfanilamide, urinary antiseptics) is determined by the type of microbe pathogen and the characteristics of the pathological process: its severity, localization, and extent of damage.
In some difficult cases of mixed infection, surgery will be required, during which the affected area is removed, since the microbes that cause the pathological process are very difficult to neutralize and stop the further spread of the infection.
Depending on the severity of the urinary tract infection, medications can be taken by mouth, administered intramuscularly or intravenously.
In addition to systemic antibacterial agents, local antiseptics (manganese solution, chlorhexidine, iodine solution and others) are often used in the treatment of urinary infections, which treat the affected surfaces of organs.
If there is a suspicion of a serious infection caused by several microorganisms, doctors prefer to inject intravenously strong antibiotics – Ampicillin (Acillin), Ceftazidime and others. If urethritis or cystitis occurs without complications, then it is enough to take a course of taking Bactrim or Augmentin tablets.
When a person becomes infected again after a full recovery, the course of treatment is identical to the course of the primary acute infection. But if we are talking about a chronic infection, the course of treatment will be longer – at least 1.5 months, since a shorter period of taking medications does not allow completely removing the germ and stopping inflammation.
Most often, re-infection occurs in women, so they are recommended after sexual contact for the prevention of the use of antiseptic solutions (for example, Chlorhexidine).
In men, as a rule, the causative agent of infection remains in the prostate for quite a long time, so they often have relapses rather than repeated infections.
Medications that are often used to treat the main urinary infections of men and women, and having a good therapeutic effect, are presented in the table:
|Genitourinary infection||Drugs for treatment|
|Urethritis||Locally: antiseptics (solution of potassium permanganate, Miramistin, Protargol, Vagothyl) and immunomodulators (Polyoxidonium, Cycloferon).
Inside: antibiotics (Amoxiclav, Pefloxacin, Ciprofloxacin), immunomodulators (Phlogenzym), homeopathic (Canephron N, Gentos, Cystone).
|Cystitis||Antibiotics and uro antiseptics: Biseptol, Amosin, Negram, Macmicor, Nitroxoline, Cedax, Monural.
Painkillers: Buscopan, No-spa, Spasmocystenal.
Phytopreparations: Canephron H, Cystone.
|Pyelonephritis||Antibiotics: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Cefalexin, Cefuroxime, Biseptol, Gentamicin, Imipenem, Ciprofloxacin.
Phytopreparations: Canephron H, Cystone.
Doctors usually treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. For patients with chronic or recurrent UTI, they may suggest the following:
- reception of low portions of antibiotics over a long period of time;
- taking antibiotics as a preventive measure after sexual activity or shortly after the onset of the first symptoms of infection.
To reduce discomfort, the doctor may also prescribe pain medication.
Some changes in lifestyle can cause urinary tract infections to occur less frequently. These changes include the following:
- urination before and immediately after sex;
- washing the anus and genitals before sex and immediately after it;
- consumption of large volumes of water to flush out bacteria from the bladder;
- refusal to use diaphragms and spermicides in favor of other methods of birth control;
- wearing cotton underwear and loose clothing;
- wiping in the direction from the stomach to the back after using the toilet;
- refusal from the use of flavored means for washing the body and douching.
UTI in toddlers. UTI meds for kids
Among all infectious and inflammatory diseases in children, in terms of frequency of occurrence, urinary tract infection ranks second after infection of the respiratory tract. It is characteristic that urinary tract infection in infants can be quite violent or, on the contrary, asymptomatic. In the latter case, it is possible to guess the existing inflammatory process only after obtaining the results of the urine test.
Infectious-inflammatory process may occur in the upper urinary organs (kidney, ureter) or lower urinary organs (bladder, urethra). But to determine the exact localization of the inflammatory process in infants is very difficult, so they are often given a generalized diagnosis of urinary tract infection.
Small children under the age of 1 year are not able to tell where they have pain and what is troubling. Parents can only guess what caused the restless behavior of the baby.
An infection of the urinary tract at this age can manifest itself with absolutely non-specific symptoms that occur in a variety of pathological conditions.
These are symptoms such as:
- Insufficient weight gain according to age;
- Lethargy or anxiety, crying baby;
- Poor appetite;
- Pale skin;
- Disorders of urination: straining when urinating, frequent or slow urination, urinary incontinence (including at night);
- Turbid urine.
Symptoms of UTI in children under 1 year
For most newborns, the only symptom of UTI is unexplained fever. But in 5% of infants and toddlers, UTIs proceed without fever, and therefore often go unnoticed.
In some cases, the child may have other symptoms (with or without fever), in particular:
- often repeated crying or another sign that urination causes pain or discomfort for the child;
- foul-smelling urine;
- turbid or bloody urine;
- unexplained, constant irritability;
- refusal to eat;
What will the doctor do?
Dr. Andreas Gross (Germany, Hamburg): To begin, the doctor must ask in detail about the symptoms that manifest themselves in the child, and assign him tests. If your doctor suspects that your child has a UTI, you will need to collect urine for testing for bacteria (the so-called bacterial urine culture). This analysis is an extremely important step in the diagnosis of UTI and will allow the doctor to make sure that the child has an infection and to determine which bacteria caused it to prescribe the correct antibiotics.
The resulting urine is sent to the study in the laboratory. If there are signs of infection, the doctor immediately begins treatment.
In addition to urine culture, a doctor may recommend other tests, because urinary tract infections in a child may be a sign that something is wrong with his urinary system.
A common cause of UTI is vesicoureteral reflux – a condition in which urine is sent back to the kidneys from the bladder through the ureters. Bladder-ureteral reflux is diagnosed in 30 – 40% of infants and young children who have had urinary tract infections.
Studies that are often prescribed by doctors for UTI or suspected UTI include:
- ultrasound of the kidneys and bladder;
- ascending cystourethrogram (cystography) is an X-ray examination method that shows whether urine from the bladder gets back into the kidneys of a child. In this study, a liquid dye is introduced into the bladder through the catheter, which is visible in X-rays. The picture is taken at the moment when the child’s bladder is full and he begins to urinate. On average, the process takes about 20 minutes.
Treatment of UTI in children. Antibiotics.
If the child is able to take medicine, the doctor will write you a prescription for antibiotics in liquid form, which should be given to the child 1 to 4 times a day for 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the drug and the severity of the disease.
Even if your child gets better after a few days of taking the drug, follow the recipe and go through the full course of treatment. If you do not do this, the bacteria that caused the UTI may not be completely destroyed, and the infection may return with a vengeance, which will lead to a serious deterioration in the child’s condition.
If your child is so sick that he can neither eat nor drink, you will have to spend several days in the hospital where the baby will be given intravenous antibiotics. If a child is less than 30 days old from birth, then hospitalization is required!
If a child finds a more serious problem than UTI, for example, blockage of the urinary tract, then he may need surgery. In some cases, surgical intervention is also necessary to correct MTCT, although many children completely outgrow this condition at the age of about 6 years.
If the doctor chooses a conservative method of treatment, without the use of surgery, in order to prevent kidney damage and recurrence of UTI, he will prescribe a long-term antibiotic to the child in low doses.
Prevention of UTI in toddlers
Some toddlers may simply be prone to frequent urinary tract infections, but there are a few things that can minimize the risk of developing an infection:
1. Make sure your child gets enough fluids — fluid helps prevent constipation, which is a fairly common cause of UTIs. Normally, the baby’s stool in the first weeks of life should be mushy, and then gradually becomes malleable until it passes into adult stool. In addition, the more your child drinks – the more often he will urinate, and, accordingly, his urinary tract will often be cleaned.
2. If your child has already begun to eat complementary foods, give him as much fruit, vegetables, and whole grains as possible, which also help prevent constipation. If you are breastfeeding, try to continue breastfeeding as long as possible, at least until the child is 6-7 months old. Scientists have noticed that breastfeeding for six months helps protect the child from UTI for up to 2 years.
3. If your child is a girl, then you should not wash her genitals with soap while bathing. It is better to use a special baby foam for swimming. When changing diapers, it is enough to treat the genitals with a washcloth or gauze soaked in warm water (without soap) or use wet wipes.
Remember, to prevent the appearance of urinary tract infections in a child is much easier than to treat the disease itself! To do this, it is enough to follow the rules of hygiene and carefully care for the child to minimize the appearance of bacteria in his urine.
How to cure urinary tract infection with Cipro (Ciprofloxacin)? UTI pills
Cipro is a trademark under which ciprofloxacin is marketed in the pharmaceutical market. This is an antibiotic that is in the fluoroquinolone group.
Doctors use fluoroquinolones to treat various bacterial infections. The choice of a particular drug from this group depends on the cause of the infection, as well as on the degree of bacterial resistance to specific drugs.
The principle of action of fluoroquinolones is based on limiting the ability of bacteria to multiply and grow, with the result that they eventually die.
Cipro in the treatment of UTI
Dr. Andreas Gross (Germany, Hamburg): Doctors often prescribe Cipro to people suffering from urinary tract infections, because such infections are mostly bacterial in nature and respond well to this drug.
When a person takes Cipro for the treatment of UTI, he must follow the instructions of the doctor or pharmacologist exactly. This tool is implemented in the form of tablets and solutions that can be taken at home. The duration of the therapeutic course is from several days to 2 weeks.
Antibiotics give the best result when patients are undergoing a full course of treatment. Even if the symptoms begin to subside, it is important to finish all doses. This greatly increases the chances of complete destruction of the infection.
It is never necessary to complete the treatment at an early stage, unless the doctor recommended it. Otherwise, the infection may return and cause even more acute symptoms.
Patients taking Cipro or other antibiotics for the treatment of UTI, can increase the effectiveness of the drug if they drink additional volumes of fluid and often go to the toilet to urinate. This strategy allows bacteria to be flushed out of the urinary tract and speeds up recovery.
In 2015, Mexican scientists published a scientific review in which they concluded that Cipro is in most cases a safe and effective drug for the treatment of UTIs, which is less likely to cause adverse effects than other antimicrobial agents.
The use of Cipro during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Cipro may not be the right solution for some pregnant women. If a woman is carrying a child and wants to take this drug, then she first needs to discuss this possibility with a doctor.
Ciprofloxacin is able to be passed to babies through breast milk. Therefore, women need to either refrain from taking this drug for the duration of breastfeeding, or to stop breastfeeding while taking Cipro.
In situations like this, women need to look for an optimal solution with their doctor.
What can you do for an urinary tract infection? UTI treatment antibiotics
The drugs of choice for UTI are antibiotics. The duration of administration and dosage vary, depending on the severity of the pathology and a number of other factors, which include:
- age over 65 years;
- allergic reactions;
- side effects in patients receiving the drug;
- the body’s response to previous treatment.
In case of uncomplicated UTI, 3-5 days of treatment are sufficient; otherwise, antibiotics may take a long time, up to 4 weeks, for example, for prostatitis. Often more in-depth examination and enhanced therapy is prescribed for relapse.
After evaluating the results of sowing, correction of the treatment regimen is possible. If you have had 3 or more episodes of UTI within 12 months – this is the reason for conducting a complete clinical and urological examination. In addition to antibiotics, doctors prescribe an enhanced drinking regimen, which helps eliminate the pathogen from the urinary tract.
It is important to take all the drugs exactly as recommended, in the right dosage and not to shorten the course, even if all the symptoms have disappeared. Many drugs change the color of urine to reddish orange or even blue, which should not be a cause for concern.
Which antibiotic is better for urinary tract inflammation and the duration of administration depends on what bacteria caused the pathological process and how serious the UTI is.
In typical cases, the diagnosis confirms pyuria (10 and above leukocytes) in the general analysis of urine and a positive result in testing for leukocyte esterase and nitrites.
For patients with complicated UTI, further urine culture evaluation and / or imaging techniques may be required. First-line empirical treatment options for uncomplicated cystitis include Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole, Nitrofurantoin, and Fosfomycin. Pregnant women with pyuria and bacteria in the urine are examined more thoroughly and asymptomatic bacteriuria is treated if the titer of pathogens exceeds 10 to 6 degrees in 2 urine samples.
For asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy, the first-line drugs are:
- Beta-lactam antibiotics;
Drugs for UTI:
For the treatment of complicated infections, the doctor may prescribe a higher dose of antibiotics. If the UTI is severe, or the inflammatory process is in the kidneys, inpatient care may be necessary.
During hospitalization, a massive infusion of antibacterial therapy is carried out, and drugs with detoxification action are injected.
What are the treatment options for urinary tract infections?
If you have 3 or more recurrences of UTIs per year, you may need a special treatment plan:
- taking low-dose antibiotics for a longer period of time to prevent repeated relapses;
- taking antibiotics / uroseptics once after each sexual contact;
- medication in 2-3 days if symptoms appear.
- Furagin and others.
All spicy, sour, salty foods, smoked meats and spices are excluded from the diet. As for drinks, we should not accept alcohol, lemonade, strong tea or coffee.
In the absence of temperature and pain in the lower abdomen, you can attach a warm heating pad. If symptoms and changes in the analysis are preserved against the background of antibiotic therapy, additional examination and replacement of drugs may be required.
It is unacceptable self-treatment of folk methods, as UTI can be complicated by acute purulent pyelonephritis, prostatitis and urosepsis.