- 1 What is high blood pressure?
- 2 Normal blood pressure
- 3 What causes high blood pressure?
- 4 High blood pressure symptoms
- 5 How to lower blood pressure?
- 6 High blood pressure pills. List of high blood pressure tablets
- 7 Blood pressure medication Propranolol (Inderal). Dosage. How to take?
- 8 How to prevent high blood pressure?
- 9 Best diet for high blood pressure
What is high blood pressure?
A high blood pressure (hypertonia) is a pathological state of the vascular system when the increased pressure occurs on the walls of the blood vessels, so that it is harder to pump the blood for the heart.
The blood pressure is a force when the cardiac muscle pumps the blood in the blood vessels. In case of the vessel constriction or excessive heart contraction, the pressure on the vessels grows, and it causes a damage.
Hypertonia is a “silent killer” because the disease develops slowly, is asymptomatic for a long period, and it has very dangerous consequences for a human.
- Every fourth citizen of the planet has a high blood pressure.
- Women at the age of over 40 are more subject to the development of hypertonia. 67% of women at mature age have the blood pressure above the line.
- More than 50% of the myocardial infarction and strokes are related to the complications caused by hypertonia.
- Every third patient with the high blood pressure does not suspect a pathology and continues experiencing the physiological discomfort without knowing a cause of the fatigue, weakness, and buzzing in ears.
Normal blood pressure
A blood pressure measuring is an obligatory condition during the regular medical diagnostics especially in people with the cardiovascular diseases. To determine the blood pressure, two indicants are used:
- Systolic – the maximum pressure registered at the moment of the cardiac contraction;
- Diastolic – the minimum pressure in between the cardiac muscle contraction.
The blood pressure is measured by millimeter mercury column (mm Hg). A rate of the systolic blood pressure is always determined the first, and the diastolic one – the second. The normal rate of the blood pressure is within 110/170 mm Hg – 130/85 mm Hg.
The blood pressure higher than 130/85 is regarded as high and needs a control by a patient and doctor. The rates of the blood pressure higher than 150/90 (at rest) is regarded as hypertonia in the clinical practice.
What causes high blood pressure?
A main cause of the high blood pressure is considered stresses, emotional concerns and cardiovascular disturbances. As of today, doctors distinguish 2 types of hypertonia:
- Hypertonic disease is a chronic pathological increase of the blood pressure without obvious causes. An origin of this disease is still unknown but scientists believe that the disease is genetic and runs in the family. The peculiar signs of the hypertonic disease are that the blood pressure is 150/85 mm Hg.
- Arterial hypertonia is a symptomatic disease when the increase of the blood pressure happens as a result of the action of the irritant factors: stress, physical activity, fatigue, and others. The frequent aggravation of the arterial hypertonia may cause a development of the hypertonic disease.
The increase of the blood pressure may be caused by:
- Excess saturate fatty acids;
- Physical overfatigue and severe physical exercises;
- Alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking;
- Excessive consumption of salt;
- Sedentary lifestyle;
- Excessive body weight.
Admittedly, that 80% of heavy people have increased blood pressure by 10-15 digits.
But still, the basic trigger of the increase of the blood pressure is stress, anxiety, and concern. These are three essential psychological factors that enhance a contraction of the cardiac muscle, and it increases the cardiac output and an increase of the blood pressure rates. Also, a contracture of the blood vessels may happen during the stress, and it also leads to the increase of the pressure on their walls.
High blood pressure symptoms
In most cases, a human does not even suspect the increase of the blood pressure. Due to this, the disease is called as a “silent killer” because the hypertonia symptoms may be hidden within many years. But if you are more attentive to your health and consider your body, the symptoms of the high blood pressure can be detected:
- Headache (pressing in temples);
- Buzzing in ears;
- Redness of the face and sudden flushes;
- Lack of energy and fatigue.
In case of the severe increase of the blood pressure, a patient can experience nausea, nasal bleedings, light loss of coordination. Every of these symptoms may testify about the high blood pressure, and so it is necessary to have at home or at work a measurer and check whether you have the high blood pressure. The disease is dangerous, so do not neglect the treatment.
How to lower blood pressure?
If you measured the blood pressure and rates are higher than needed, do not worry. Think why it has happened. If the blood pressure is related to the stress, it is necessary to calm down. The sedative products do not have a direct hypotensive action but they will help to relax, reduce fear, anxiety, and lower the blood pressure. It would be great if the sedative products are natural. In this case, you can be confident in a safety of the treatment.
A deep breathing with holding it may help you to arrest the starting crisis, without medications. Try to reduce the load on the heart. In case of the high blood pressure, take a sit, put the legs down, and relax. The blood should go to the lower part of the body, and so the load on the heart is reduced.
But all these measures help only if the blood pressure is not very high and is caused by stress or other objective factors. If you do not know a cause of the increase of the pressure, or the rates are too high, a pharmaceutical treatment is started. Due to the medications, the blood pressure can be lowered and the rates can be controlled.
However, medications will be useless for the patients with the high blood pressure without any regimen. Here are some recommendations how to lower the blood pressure in patients with the chronic hypertonia:
- Get rid of the excessive body weight. The obesity increases the load on the heart, so that hypertonia develops.
- Lower the salt consumption.
- Increase the physical activity. Bear in mind that the heart is a muscle that should be trained as other muscles. Walks and light aerobic loads will help to increase a tolerance of the cardiac muscle and reduce the blood pressure.
High blood pressure pills. List of high blood pressure tablets
Dr. Gregg Reger, MD: The high blood pressure may not be a single disease but also a consequence of the severe pathology of the cardiovascular system, consult a doctor during the appearance of the symptoms. A doctor can make a diagnosis and prescribe the treatment.
The control of the blood pressure is usually happened pharmaceutically. In rare cases of the arterial hypertension, patients are prescribed medications that quickly lower the blood pressure causing a dilation of the blood pressure.
In case of the chronic hypertonic disease, to reduce the basic rates of the blood pressure, 5 main groups of medications are used:
- Beta-blockers (Propranolol, Carvedilol, Timolol) have a broad action, lower the blood pressure, regulate the pulse, and reduce the arrhythmia attacks.
- Diuretics (Furosemide, Indapamide, Spironolactone) increase the excretion of the potassium from the body and an excessive fluid, so that the blood pressure drops.
- Calcium antagonists (Amlodipine, Nifedipine, Verapamil) dilate the coronary vessels, provide an antianginal action, improve the blood flow in the arteries.
- ACE inhibitors (Lisinopril, Benazepril, Enalapril) arrest the attacks of arrhythmia, lower the pressure. Also, they are used for the prolonged control of the blood pressure as beta-blockers.
- Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (Avapro, Irbesartan) conduce a relaxation of the blood vessels, so that lumen is increased, and the blood flow is improved. A fast therapeutic effect is provided.
Blood pressure medication Propranolol (Inderal). Dosage. How to take?
Propranolol (Inderal) is one of the primary drugs for the treatment of hypertonia. It has several advantages before the drugs in other medical groups:
- Propranolol (Inderal) does not reduce the efficiency during the prolonged use;
- A regular increase of the effective dose is not needed;
- It is well tolerated and does not have side effects;
- It lowers the blood pressure and also reduces the symptoms of arrhythmia.
Dr. Gregg Reger, MD: The mechanism of the action of Propranolol (Inderal) is simple during the arterial hypertonia. Blocking beta-adrenoceptors in the cardiac muscle, the drug lowers the frequency of the cardiac contractions, reduces the blood regurgitating during the heart contraction and load on the walls of the arterial vessels.
Taking the drug, the heart beats rhythmically, and in certain amount of contractions. Due to this, the rates of the blood pressure are regulated and are not changed during the regular use of the drug.
The main principle of the hypertonia treatment with Propranolol (Inderal) is a regular and systematic use of the tablets. You do not have to miss any dose and the pills should be taken at the same time. To reduce and control the rates of the blood pressure, it is necessary to take Propranolol (Inderal) in the dose of 40 mg 2-3 times a day.
The dose of Propranolol during hypertonia is indicated by a doctor according to the rates of the blood pressure for the reporting period and presence of the concomitant diseases. If a stable control of the blood pressure is not observed during the dose of 80-120 mg Propranolol a day, the dose is increased.
The pills are taken before or during meals, with enough water. In case of the use of the drug 2 times a day, it is necessary to take a pill in the morning before breakfast, and a pill in the evening, before dinner.
How to prevent high blood pressure?
In order to prevent hypertonia, it is enough to set the lifestyle, refuse from the bad habits, and learn how to control the stress.
The WHO recommendations to prevent the arterial hypertension include:
- Giving up smoking;
- Decreasing alcohol consumption;
- Healthy diet;
- Increase of the physical activity;
- Reduce salt consumption and fatty meals.
If the high blood pressure depends on the physiological factors, a change of the regime will help to prevent the development of the chronic hypertonia in these patients. If a patient is subject to the arterial hypertension, or he/she has the first signs of the disease, it is recommended to consult a doctor and start a pharmaceutical treatment.
The preventive treatment includes the use of the sedative natural products, and also cyclic therapeutic courses of the beta-blockers. Due to the use of these products, it is possible to reduce a load on the heart, and relieve the blood flow in the vessels. It will help to reduce a risk of the affection of the blood vessels and keep their elasticity. In case of the regular prophylaxis of hypertonia, a risk of the increased blood pressure is reduced by 50%.
The preventive measures will help to reduce complications during the genetic propensity for hypertonia, and the disease will be light. A chronic type of the disease is very dangerous, and not just an episodic increase of the blood pressure. In this case, the blood vessels and heart have a constant load, and it leads to the complications.
Best diet for high blood pressure
A food ration is an important ingredient of any healthy body. There are many clinical evidences that the blood pressure depends on what human eats.
In case of the high blood pressure, split meals is important. Do not follow strict diets, and do not starve. The ration should contain vitamins B, potassium, and magnesium. It will improve the cardiac muscle, and increase its tolerance. Use cabbage, groats, dried apricot, carrot, and beetroot. These products are not only useful for the body but also contain a lot of micronutrients, needed to improve the blood vessels and reduce the pressure. Sea cabbage, seafood and low-fat sea fish are also rich in these ingredients.
Try to avoid the excessive consumption of some products:
- Sugar: any fast carbohydrates lead to the obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolism disorder. It has a negative influence on the capacity of the blood vessels, and it means it will cause hypertonia.
- Eat less products containing animal fats: sausages, butterfat, cooking butter.
- Reduce salt consumption. Its main ingredient sodium holds water in the body. So, the amount of the circulating blood and the blood pressure grows.
The best diet during the high blood pressure is a diet based on the healthy food without flavor enhancers. At first, a lack of salt and sugar in the food may be crucial but in some time you will see the differences, and you will eat food without these ingredients.
Try to avoid products that may cause metabolic changes because hypertonia is a tricky disease, and it is better to eliminate any causative factors.