- 1 How to stop alcohol cravings? Medication to stop drinking
- 2 Drugs for alcohol dependence
- 3 How to stop drinking alcohol? Buy Antabuse
- 4 Buy Antabuse (Disulfiram) 500mg online. Disulfiram price
- 5 What is Antabuse used for? Disulfiram uses
- 6 Antabuse contraindications
- 7 Antabuse dosage. How to quit drinking?
- 8 Antabuse (Disulfiram) side effects
- 9 Disulfiram Interactions
- 10 Alcohol abuse treatment. How does Antabuse work?
- 11 What is an alcoholic? Signs of alcoholism
How to stop alcohol cravings? Medication to stop drinking
Alcohol craving should be treated by a qualified specialist – a narcologist. Self prescribing and taking medication for alcoholism never ends with success, and no matter how good and effective is the medicine.
Treatment of alcohol dependence and the removal of physiological symptoms are completely different things. Eliminating the consequences, not eliminating the cause is meaningless, which is why the path to recovery does not begin with pills, but with psychological help.
Nevertheless, there are drugs that help overcome the physiological craving for alcohol, which, together with psychotherapy, accelerate the return of the alcoholic to normal life. But a doctor should prescribe such drugs – let us emphasize this again.
There are special medicines that cause aversion to alcohol. These drugs include Disulfiram.
Drugs for alcohol dependence
Tablets, causing an aversion to alcohol.
This group of drugs includes substances that inhibit the synthesis of the enzyme acetaldehyde and, thus, do not allow the body to get rid of acetaldehyde, a toxic product of the breakdown of ethyl alcohol. If, against the background of regularly taking such a substance or “stitching” it under the skin, a person takes alcohol, he will feel symptoms of severe alcohol poisoning (nausea, weakness, headache, sweating, tremor, fear of death), without even getting drunk.
Trade names of Disulfiram:
Antabuse, Alcophobin, Anticol, Aversan, Diabuse, Esperal, Etabus, Etiltox, Refusal, Tenutex.
$10-$300, depending on the form, packaging and dosage.
Pharmacological action and use:
Disulfiram inhibits acetaldehyde synthesis and causes the clinical state of acute alcohol poisoning. Quickly absorbed from the digestive tract, excreted by the kidneys. Disulfiram dosage is selected individually after careful examination by a narcologist. The drug should accumulate in the patient’s body gradually, so it is either taken every day, increasing the dosage, or sewn into the shoulder or buttocks.
Over 60 years of age, peptic ulcer, reduced blood clotting, mental disorders, hypertension 2-3 degrees, heart, kidney and liver failure, atherosclerosis, thyrotoxicosis, tuberculosis, diabetes, bronchial asthma, neuritis of the auditory nerve and glaucoma.
Metallic taste in the mouth, jaundice, polyneuritis, bouts of hypotension, fainting, vasospasm, convulsions, respiratory arrest, myocardial infarction.
The drug should not be taken in combination with anticoagulants and aspirin. Alcohol intake in a dosage of more than 100 ml is life threatening.
How to stop drinking alcohol? Buy Antabuse
Antabuse – a drug that causes, in combination with ethyl alcohol, the following negative effects: nausea, vomiting, flushing of the face, tachycardia, hypotension, etc .
The use of alcohol after its reception is extremely unpleasant, which forms a conditioned reflex aversion to the smell and taste of alcoholic beverages.
Form of release and composition of the drug Antabuse – tablets effervescent: almost white, round, flat, with beveled edges:
250 mg dose: one side is divided by a risk labeled on the sides “CD” | “C” (100 pieces each in high density polyethylene containers / dark glass bottles with a polyethylene lid, 1 container / bottle in a cardboard bundle);
500 mg dose: on one side there is a cross-shaped risk separating the tablet into four equal parts and the “CJ” marking (50 pieces in high density polyethylene containers / dark glass bottles with a polyethylene lid, 1 container / vial in a cardboard container Pack).
In 1 effervescent tablet contains:
Active substance: disulfiram – 250 mg or 500 mg;
Auxiliary components: povidone, corn starch, tartaric acid, talc, magnesium stearate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, silicon dioxide colloid, microcrystalline cellulose.
Buy Antabuse (Disulfiram) 500mg online. Disulfiram price
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What is Antabuse used for? Disulfiram uses
Antabuse is a drug that is used to combat alcohol dependence. You can buy it only on prescription. However, in online pharmacies you can buy it without a prescription.
The main active ingredient is disulfiram, which is a substance that, as a result of interaction with ethyl alcohol, causes a feeling of disgust for alcohol. The fact is that it destroys ethanol, thereby causing nausea, vomiting, and migraine in a person – all the symptoms of toxic poisoning.
Antabuse (Disulfiram) used in the following cases:
1. Implantation tablets as well as injection solution are prescribed for patients with alcoholism, including chronic alcoholism.
2. For prophylactic purposes during treatment are prescribed tablets for internal use.
- severe cardiovascular pathologies, including uncompensated heart failure and coronary artery disorders, such as hypertension, ischemic heart disease;
- Severe organic lesions of the brain, anamnestic data on a stroke;
- Severe renal failure;
- Neuropsychiatric disorders, including psychoses, risks of suicidal attempts, severe forms of pathologies related to personality disorder;
- Severe liver function abnormalities exceeding the upper limit of the norm of activity of microsomal hepatic enzymes by 3 times or more, the history of adverse reactions from the liver with previous disulfiram therapy;
- Alcohol intoxication or use of ethanol-containing drugs or beverages for 24 hours before taking the drug;
- Drug dependence syndrome;
- Period of pregnancy and lactation (insufficient data on the safety and effectiveness of Antabuse in this category of patients);
- Children and adolescents under 18 years of age (no data on safety and efficacy of use);
- Hypersensitivity to disulfiram or auxiliary components of the drug.
- Antibuse is used with caution in diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, signs of irreversible brain damage, kidney failure, respiratory or liver diseases, epilepsy or seizure syndrome of any genesis (increased probability of disulfiram-ethanol reaction to a more severe degree), peripheral neuropathy, ulcerative.
- Diseases of the stomach and duodenum, neuritis of the optic nerve, and also in the elderly (after 60 years).
Antabuse dosage. How to quit drinking?
Effervescent tablet Antabuse for quit drinking taken inside, previously dissolved in water (1/2 cup).
The drug is used only under the supervision of a doctor. Therapy is prescribed after a thorough clinical examination of the patient and a warning about abstinence from drinking during treatment, as well as possible complications and consequences.
The drug is taken according to an individual scheme, determined by the attending physician, at the rate of 0.2-0.5 g 1-2 times a day.
After 7-10 days from the start of therapy, it is necessary to conduct a disulfiram-alcohol test.
For this, the patient is given 20-30 ml of vodka after taking 0.5 g of the drug, if the reaction is weak, the dose of alcohol is increased to 30-50 ml (the maximum permissible dose of vodka is 100-120 ml).
After 1-2 days, the sample is repeated in a hospital, after 3-5 days – on an outpatient basis, if necessary, adjust the dose of alcohol and / or drug.
In the future Antabuse can be used in a maintenance dose of 0.15-0.2 g / day for 1-3 years.
Antabuse (Disulfiram) side effects
Nonspecific side effects, most often observed with Antabuse taking, which, among other things, can be associated with the underlying disease: headache, drowsiness, reactions from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract).
If they manifest, you may need to reduce the dose of the drug. The frequency of unwanted reactions from organs and systems (according to the following classification 1/10 – very often, 1/100 – 1/10 – often, 1/1000 – 1/100 – infrequently, 1/10 000 – 1/1000 – rarely, 1/10 000, including single cases – very rarely, frequency unknown):
Gastrointestinal: often epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, metallic taste in the mouth, Bad breath;
Frequency unknown – unpleasant odor in patients with colostomy due to the presence of carbon sulphide;
- often – increased activity of hepatic enzymes (gamma-glutamyltransferase and transaminase);
- Rarely – jaundice;
- Very rarely – clinical signs of hepatotoxicity, liver cell damage, hepatitis, fulminant hepatitis due to extensive liver necrosis, which may result in hepatic insufficiency, hepatic coma and death (these side effects usually occur during the first 8 weeks of therapy and are not dose-dependent);
- infrequently – allergic reactions;
Data from laboratory and instrumental studies:
- rarely – deviations in the results of functional liver tests from normal parameters, including a rise in blood levels of bilirubin and an increase in activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT);
- often – perversion of taste, drowsiness, headache;
- Rarely – polyneuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, optic neuritis (the smokers are most prone to develop it), tremor, encephalopathy;
- Very rarely – confusion, convulsions, neurological disorders (most likely dose-dependent, usually after a few months from the start of treatment, slowly reversible);
- often – mania, depression;
- Rarely psychotic reactions (schizophrenia, paranoia) (such disorders occur primarily in patients with schizophrenia or a history of depression, they are probably associated with an increase in dopamine levels due to inhibition of dopamine-β-hydroxylase by disulfiram);
- Very rarely – acute organic brain syndrome, behavioral disorders;
Genital organs and mammary gland:
- infrequently – sexual dysfunction, decreased libido;
Skin and subcutaneous tissue:
- infrequently – allergic dermatitis, acne, itching, rash;
- often – a subjective feeling of discomfort, drowsiness, fatigue.
Adverse reactions likely due to the combined use of disulfiram and ethanol:
- palpitations, tachycardia, dyspnea, arrhythmias, dizziness, fainting;
- Musculoskeletal system: muscular spasm;
- headache, drowsiness, impaired coordination, loss of consciousness;
- Skin and subcutaneous fat: hyperhidrosis, flushes of blood to the face;
- hypotension, cardiovascular collapse;
The result of an overdose of a combination of ethanol-disulfiram can be cardiovascular collapse, depression of consciousness (up to coma), neurological complications. In this situation, symptomatic therapy is performed.
Specific guidance Patients need to be warned about the dangers of the reaction of intolerance to alcoholic beverages. With the simultaneous administration of Antabuse with oral anticoagulants, more frequent monitoring of prothrombin content and correction of anticoagulant doses is required, this is associated with an increased likelihood of bleeding.
Patients with hypothyroidism or renal failure disulfiram are taken with caution, especially at the risk of its possible combination with alcohol. Adverse reactions caused by taking disulfiram (including fatigue and drowsiness) affect the speed of psychomotor reactions and the ability to concentrate.
In the case of the emergence of such conditions during the therapy with Antabuse, the control of complex mechanisms and vehicles, including a car, is required to abstain.
Ascorbic acid reduces the reaction of disulfiram to ethanol. Contraindicated the joint use of Antabuse and alcohol (alcoholic beverages and medications containing alcohol), as this can cause reactions of intolerance, accompanied by hot flushes, erythema, vomiting, tachycardia.
Other undesirable and prudent combinations with disulfiram:
- isoniazid – coordination and behavior may be impaired;
- Ornidazole, secnidazole, metronidazole, tinidazole (nitro-5-imidazoles) – can cause confusion and delirious disorders;
- Phenytoin – disulfiram inhibits its metabolism, as a result of which there is a rapid and significant increase in the level of phenytoin in the plasma, accompanied by toxic symptoms;
- Oral anticoagulants (including warfarin) – their effect and the risk of bleeding are increased as a result of a decrease in the disintegration in the liver (more frequent control of concentration and correction of the dose of anticoagulants, including during 8 days after disulfiram cancellation);
- Theophylline – it is necessary to correct its dose in the direction of decrease depending on the concentration in the plasma and clinical symptoms (due to the inhibition of theophylline metabolism by disulfiram);
- Benzodiazepines – The antabuse is able to potentiate their sedative effect by inhibiting oxidative metabolism (especially diazepam and chlordiazepoxide), which requires dosage adjustment in accordance with the clinical picture;
- Tricyclic antidepressants – there is a possibility of increasing the reaction of intolerance to ethanol, especially in patients taking alcohol against disulfiram therapy. When the above combinations can not be avoided, in the course of therapy and after treatment with Antabus, control of plasma concentrations in the plasma and regular clinical monitoring of patients are necessary.
Alcohol abuse treatment. How does Antabuse work?
Drugs containing Disulfiram as an active ingredient (such as Antabuse) are used to treat alcohol abuse only when other therapies that are milder in effect have proved to be ineffective.
This approach is due to the fact that the action of Disulfiram is based on the development of a negative conditioned reflex in response to alcohol consumption. The negative conditioned reflex is produced due to the deliberate challenge of extremely unpleasant sensations from alcohol consumption.
Discomfort is caused by drinking a small dose of vodka under the supervision of a doctor while taking Antabuse. And since Antabuse violates the neutralization of alcohol in the body, the ingress of alcohol into the body while taking the drugs causes an intolerance reaction, manifested by extremely unpleasant sensations of poisoning, similar to a severe hangover.
When a person experiences discomfort from alcohol consumption several times, he develops a conditioned reflex of aversion to alcohol. And it is precisely on this that the effect of the treatment of alcoholism with disulfiram drugs is based.
That is, the essence of the therapeutic action of disulfiram drugs is due to the fact that, against the background of the effect of the drug, alcohol consumption causes extremely unpleasant sensations, such as:
- redness of the skin;
- heat in the upper body and in the face;
- chest tightness;
- difficulty breathing;
- lowering blood pressure;
- nausea, vomiting;
These unpleasant sensations continue for several hours, until the drunk alcohol is completely removed from the body.
When ingested in pill form, Antabuse is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream through the mucous membrane of the intestine and stomach in the amount of 70-90% of the total dosage consumed. Then disulfiram penetrates into adipose tissue, where its depot is created (“stock”), from which the drug is slowly and gradually released, creating and maintaining a constant concentration of the active substance in the blood and, accordingly, a lasting effect.
The first significant clinical effect is manifested as early as 3–4 hours after taking the first tablet of the disulfiram drug, but the maximum severity of the therapeutic effect occurs only after 12 hours.
After the last administration of tablets with disulfiram, their full therapeutic effect lasts for about two days. However, the residual effect of disulfiram persists for about 1 to 2 weeks after taking the last dose of the drug.
Thus, within two days after taking the last Antabuse dosage, the effect of the appearance of extremely unpleasant sensations in response to alcohol is fully preserved. And within 1 to 2 weeks after taking the last dose of the drug, the weak effect of the appearance of unpleasant sensations in response to alcohol consumption remains.
This means that after taking the last tablet of Antabuse, you need to wait at least 2 weeks, and only after they have passed can you begin to consume alcohol.
In case of liver diseases with moderately or mildly impaired organ functions, the concentration of disulfiram in the blood does not change. And in liver cirrhosis, on the contrary, the concentration of disulfiram is higher than in the absence of liver diseases. Therefore, the severity of the therapeutic effect of the drug in people suffering from liver cirrhosis is higher.
Disulfiram is eliminated from the body mainly through urine and partly from exhaled air and feces.
What is an alcoholic? Signs of alcoholism
Everyone knows that there is alcoholism in the world. A terrible disease that is formed on the basis of irresistible craving for alcoholic beverages. A person suffering from addiction, not only wants to drink, he can no longer live without alcohol. Such people are called alcoholics – individuals suffering from alcoholism.
Everything seems to be simple and transparent. But who is an alcoholic? Or is it just the rude name of a person addicted to alcohol? In everyday life, an alcoholic is called a degraded personality, dirty and always drunk, constantly looking for a place to drink. These citizens already have the last stages of alcoholism and are lost to society. But from what moment can a person be attributed to alcoholics?
This disease develops for a long time, gradually developing into a stage of physical dependence. At this point, the lack of alcohol causes painful discomfort and discomfort in a person with a sharp deterioration in health.
How to identify an alcoholic? Signs of alcoholism
Not all people, even drinkers, belong to this category of citizens. To call a person an alcoholic, you must have a foundation. Persons dependent on alcohol go through 4 stages in the development of their addiction.
At this level, the future alcoholic is a completely normal person, no different from other people. He can have a strong family, good work, true friends. He is not deprived of material benefits and hobbies. But for some reason a person starts drinking. And he feels an ardent desire, an attraction to the process of drinking alcohol.
A person addicted to alcohol at the beginning of his alcoholic journey does not recognize a problem that is awakening (even if he feels it). It all comes down to the explanation that “I want to relax and unwind.” Such a state, the first stage, can last several years and inevitably flows to the next level.
2. The addiction
This stage is already a pretty serious sign of alcoholism. Now a person who needs a drink will need to increase the dose to get the usual pleasure. In addition, his justification for his habit is changing. A person convinces everyone, and first of all himself, that a constant drink does not threaten and does not harm his health.
These explanations and the systematic increase in the dose of alcohol clearly indicate that it is time to sound the alarm and engage in closely shaky health. At these stages (the first two) it is still difficult to find the criteria that determine the presence of the disease. But, according to psychologists, at this stage it is easy to identify and recognize an existing problem.
3. Physical dependence
This stage of alcoholism is based on the growth of the activity of alcohol metabolites in the human body. Alcohol dependence on the physical level manifests itself in the form of an irresistible craving for alcohol. And such addiction becomes already vital.
The syndrome of physical dependence is formed at the stage when a person is already experiencing comfort from intoxication (alcohol poisoning) when in a drunken state. But a sober state brings with it unpleasant and sometimes painful symptoms.
In medicine, this physical attraction is called “compulsive”, that is, unstoppable. The desire to drink overshadows all other aspirations. This makes adjustments to the identity of the patient. A person becomes aggressive, out of control, conflict and evil.
Anyone who expresses his negative attitude towards drunkenness becomes an enemy for an alcoholic. Physical attraction is manifested in the following autonomic symptoms:
- severe migraines;
- increased thirst;
- the appearance of photophobia;
- muscle and joint pain;
- increased sensitivity to loud sounds;
- dizziness up to fainting.
4. The destruction of internal organs
This is the latest stage of development of alcoholism, “thermal”, as doctors call it. It is characterized by a persistent decrease in tolerance to ethyl alcohol. In humans, neurological seizures, similar to epileptic, are becoming more frequent. The development of alcoholic encephalopathy begins.
At this stage, a small dose of alcohol is enough for a person to achieve “condition.” Intoxication is accompanied by a rapid deterioration in general health, severe depression, and alcoholic psychosis. Slow and irreversible destruction of internal organs occurs.
Withdrawal syndrome occurs in more severe forms, accompanied by depressive states and weakness (muscle weakness, global breakdown). The following symptoms often occur:
- unexplained fear;
- high level of anxiety.
Since at this stage there is a reduction in the required dose of alcohol (and sometimes only 200–250 g of alcohol is enough for a patient), a person drinks much less, but more often. The euphoria typical of the early stages disappears, but the level of aggressiveness and nastiness is also noticeably reduced.
Such people are called “alcoholics”, those who practically never “sober”. Almost all people at this stage there is persistent degradation of the individual. A person loses the ability to reason sensibly, to think, to explain, to reason logically.
Most alcoholics suffer at this stage from chronic liver damage, are faced with cirrhosis, hepatitis, pancreatitis. Who is an alcoholic in the last stage of the disease? This is a person who is almost impossible to return to a healthy and sober life. The average life expectancy at the last stage of alcoholism is about 7 years.
Therefore, it is so important to begin to struggle with alcohol addiction in the early stages. Without waiting for a person to develop the last and already incurable stage of the disease.